■ Describe how to recognize an emergency and size up the scene.
■ Explain how to activate and work with the emergency medical services (EMS) system.
■ Understand legal concepts as they apply to lay responders, including consent and the purpose of Good Samaritan laws.
■ Identify how to reduce the risk of disease transmission when giving care.
■ Demonstrate how to check a person who is responsive for life-threatening and non-life-threatening conditions.
■ Recognize the signs and symptoms of shock and describe appropriate first aid care for a person who is showing these signs and symptoms.
■ Recognize the signs and symptoms of, and describe appropriate first aid care for, the following sudden illnesses: breathing emergencies, diabetic emergencies, seizures, fainting and stroke.
■ Describe methods used to control external bleeding, including the application of direct pressure and the application of a commercial tourniquet.
■ Demonstrate the application of direct pressure to control external bleeding.
■ Explain when a commercial tourniquet should be used, and describe the basic principles of using a tourniquet.
■ Recognize the signs and symptoms of, and describe appropriate first aid care for, the following injuries: burns; muscle, bone and joint injuries; and head, neck and spinal injuries, including concussion.
■ Recognize the signs and symptoms of, and describe appropriate first aid care for, the following environmental injuries and illnesses: heat-related illnesses, cold-related illnesses and poisoning.